The immunological effects of vaccine targeting virulence factors of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19)
SARS-CoV-2 is a member of the Coronaviridae family, which comprises many virulent strains that infect humans and animals, including SARS-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome CoV (MERS-CoV). Two vaccine candidates for SARS-CoV and three for MERS-CoV are in phase I clinical trials (WHO). These prior experiences of vaccine development for animal and human CoVs have provided important insights into the development of vaccines for SARS-CoV-2 infection.
To develop a vaccine against a newly emerged virus, it is important to understand the immune correlates of protection. Although much remains to be determined regarding immune correlates of protection for SARS-CoV-2 infection, emerging data have demonstrated the importance of both humoral and cellular immunity in protection. A strong correlation has been found between vaccine-induced neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) and a reduction of viral loads in non-human primates (NHPs) after SARS-CoV-2 infection.